Dating minerals

Many Christians have been led to distrust radiometric dating and are completely unaware of the great number of laboratory measurements that have shown these methods to be consistent.Many are also unaware that Bible-believing Christians are among those actively involved in radiometric dating.Radiometric dating--the process of determining the age of rocks from the decay of their radioactive elements--has been in widespread use for over half a century.There are over forty such techniques, each using a different radioactive element or a different way of measuring them.However, there are several lines of evidence that indicate radiogenic Pb can be inherited during crystallization of the mineral grains, and that open-system behavior is common, with radiogenic Pb lost by diffusion due to the way the Pb is held in the crystal lattice.Even as early as 1960 Tilton reported that Pb diffuses from zircon and U-bearing minerals at temperatures as low as 50°C. This is dramatically illustrated by the contact metamorphic effects of a Tertiary granite stock on zircon crystals in surrounding regionally metamorphosed Precambrian sediments and volcanics.He was employed at Caltech's Division of Geological & Planetary Sciences at the time of writing the first edition.

It is one of the simplest examples of a differential equation.We could be sure that a mineral containing parentium originally had no daughterium.If the mineral contained 1 part per million Parentium-123 and 3 parts per million Daughterium-123, we could be sure all the Daughterium-123 was originally Parentium-123. In the laboratory, rock samples are crushed and the zircon grains are separated from the other minerals by heavy liquid and other mineral separation techniques.After being mounted, the crystals can be analyzed using an instrument such as a SHRIMP (Sensitive High mass Resolution Ion Micro Probe) which focuses a very narrow ion beam onto the grains so that mass spectrometers can measure the ratios of the isotopes vaporized from the targeted spot.

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